Like other military powers of the World War 1 period (1914-1918), the Russian Army adopted a "stick grenade" design as an anti-infantry measure. In Imperial Russian Army service, this became the "Model 1914", a weapon designed by Vladimir Rdultovsky and a modification of the earlier Model 1912 model. The grenade carried either a Picric Acid or TNT filling depending on the production model and was used for decades before a successor was eventually adopted.
The basic function of the Model 1914 relied on a 4- to 5-second timed-fuse delay. The "stick" nature of the grenade, popular during the World War 1 period, allowed the base to be held as a handle in one hand and the safety catch to be operated with the other. Once the catch was released, the grenade was active and could be thrown - the safety pin releasing when the grenade went airborne. Overall length of the grenade reached 235mm with a diameter of 45mm while weight was between 500 grams and 780 grams depending on production model.
There were three primary forms of the series: the basic concussion grenade was the Model 1914 and this was followed by the dimensionally larger and slightly heavier Model 1917 which was developed as a chemical weapon (releasing Chloropicrin around the detonation area). The Model 1914/30 was an interwar development essentially taking the Model 1914 design and switching to a TNT filling. The grenade could further be converted to a fragmentation weapon by applying a thin metal sleeve - though at the expense of added weight.